Darawad et al. (2013), Jordan

To explore perception of exercise benefits and barriers among Jordanian patients’ with ESRD

Descriptive correlational design

Perceived exercise benefits and barriers

Perception of dialysis patients regarding exercise benefits and barriers―the dialysis patient-perceived exercise benefits and barriers scale (DPEBBS), (Zheng, et al., 2009).

A convenience sample of 190 patients diagnosed with ESRD ages ranged from 18 - 84 and being dialyzed in three major cities in Jordan: Amman, Zarqa and Irbid

Participants significantly perceived more exercise benefits compared with exercise barriers (t = 2.17, df = 187, P = 0.03)

Darawad et al. (2014), Jordan

To explore perceived exercise self-efficacy, benefits and barriers, and commitment to exercise among Jordanians with chronic illnesses

Descriptive cross-sectional design

Perceived exercise self-efficacy, benefits and barriers, and commitment to exercise planning

Perceived benefits and barriers―the exercise benefits and barriers Scale (EBBS), (Sechrist, Walker, & Pender, 1987), Exercise self-efficacy―the exercise self-efficacy Scale (ESE), (Bandura, 2006), and commitment to exercise planning ―the commitment to a plan for exercise scale, (Bandura, 2006)

A convenience sample of 402 ages ranged from 19 - 93 years with chronic illnesses from four hospitals representing the main healthcare sectors in Jordan: governmental, teaching, and private

Significant correlation between commitment to exercise planning with barriers and benefits among chronic ill patients (r = 0.1, r = 0.10, P = 0.001, respectively). Self-efficacy was not correlated with other variables

Darawad et al. (2016), Jordan

To examine the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of Bandura’s Exercise Self-Efficacy scale (ESE-A) among Jordanian patients with different chronic diseases.

Descriptive cross-sectional design

Exercise self-efficacy

Exercise profile (frequency, duration, exercise activity, and health perception) ―frequency, duration, and exercise activity-researcher developed, and health perception ―(Mason-Hawkes & Holm, 1993), and Exercise self-efficacy―the Arabic version of exercise self-efficacy scale (ESE-A), (Bandura, 1997)

A convenience sample of 272 patients with chronic illness from outpatient clinics (cardiac, endocrine, and renal) at four hospitals representative for the major health care sectors in Jordan: public, university -affiliated, and private

Significant correlation with weekly exercise frequency (r = 0.23, P < 0.001), duration (r = 0.31, P < 0.001), and evaluation of their physical exercise (r = 0.39, P < 0.001). Also the ESE-A was found to be a fit measure to evaluate exercise self-efficacy among Arabic patients with chronic diseases (Cronbach’s alpha was 0.89 and split-half coefficient was 0.83)