Key Variables


Study Populations


Guedes et al. (2009), Brazil

To describe the everyday physical activity habits of students and analyze the practice of physical activity and its determinants



Previous behaviors and personal factors, and physical activities

Interviews and physical examination, profile of physical activity (gender, age range, time spent daily on sedentary activities, and body mass index (BMI))

79 children and adolescents

aged 6 to 18 years in a public school in Brazil

The first component “previous behaviors and personal factors” of Pender’s theoretical model of health promotion can be related with the daily routine of children and adolescents, focusing on physical activities

Taymoori et al. (2010), Iran

To evaluate the HPM as a means to predict physical activity (PA)



Physical activity and psychosocial variables, Competing demands

Physical activity and psychosocial variables―a modified version of the child/adolescent activity log (CAAL; Garcia, et al., 1995, 1997), Competing demands―Pender’s scale

515 boys from 100 junior high and high schools in Iran

HPMHPM accounted for 37% of the variance in Physical Activity (PA) but did not represent a good data fit. There were significant pathways between PA and self-efficacy, enjoyment, and PA modeling respectively (Β = 0.25, P < 0.001), (B = 0.22, P < 0.01), and (B = −0.13, P < 0.05). A revised model that included the indirect effects of competing demands explained 34% of the variance in PA and represented a good data fit. In the revised model, self-efficacy, commitment to planning, and enjoyment were associated with PA; additionally, competing demands influence PA