Authors & Year




Daele et al. 2014, Belgium [13]

Exploring the confidence and attitude of home nurses in professional competence concerning depression, then evaluate the capacity of minimal intervention for nurses to detect depression in patients and caregiver

-Nurses’ attitude/confidence in professional competences shows no significant changes, but for the role attitude decline for home nurses in the experimental group

-Significant differences in the intervention group of identifying depressed patients compared with controls


Quasi experimental design allows more accurate results


Follow up studies are open to respondent attrition.

Butler & Quayle 2007, Ireland [30]

Evaluate late-life depression education effectiveness on elevating nurses’ knowledge and assess the educational impact of nurses’ attitude toward depressed elderly people

-Significant differences in “correct and incorrect” responses between pre- and post-training

-Attitudes towards depression were positive following training which were significant

-Short training program on late-life depression was effective


The study used validated tools thus valid results


Uncontrolled design results to bias effects in study

Worrall-Carter et al. 2012, UK [31]

Identify nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding depression screening and referral for cardiac patients following the implementation of education workshops and a validated screening tool with referral actions

-80% reported a “good” understanding of depression, post-program compared to 30% at baseline

-60% reported routinely using the depression screening and referral tool

-The interviews identified three main themes: knowledge improvement; perceived self-efficacy and new knowledge into practice


Use of validated tools


Pre- and post-test design is open to respondent attrition.

Sanders 2006, USA [32]

Explore the depression screening practices of certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives and examine its associated factors

-Attitude, perceived ability, knowledge, and education accounted for 20% of the variance in depression screening conducted by certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives


Participants distribution, enhanced more varied results with less sample bias effects


Use individualized tool reduced results quality

Choi et al. 2009, USA [33]

Examine nursing home staff their opinions and experience of residents’ risk factors of depression and explore current intervention programs and staff training

-Participants indicate that the most common sign of depression in residents is social withdrawal as a result of grief, loss of control, independence, anxiety, and changing of their past lifestyle -75% of their residents’ families were not involved with their relative


Criteria of sample selection reduced issues of bias in sample selection


Interviews used were open to interviewer bias