Authors & Year




Agar et al. 2011, Australia [5]

Nurses’ understandings of delirium assessment and management

-No participant recognized the diagnostic criteria of delirium

-Many recognized the cognitive or behavioral manifestations

-The differences in recalling delirium etiology depend on the participants’ area of practice

-Whereas the limited understanding of delirium and its management, the level of confidence considered to be very high

-Participants were distressed while trying to provide quality care


Used a qualitative design

Audio-taping enhanced message accurate capture


The interview is subject to bias

Baker et al. 2015, USA [17]

To explore nurses’ knowledge regarding delirium and their opinion on their knowledge level

-An average of correct answer 64%

-Only 20% had score 75% or greater

-There is a correlation between education level, year of experience, or area of practice with delirium general knowledge and its risk factors in nurses


Knowledge test allowed easy analysis and quantification of Knowledge


Results of Non-experimental design could be less accurate than experimental ones

Christensen 2014, South East Asia [18]

Evaluate medical intensive care unit nurses’ knowledge in identifying and managing delirium, and study the impact of their demographics on knowledge of the signs and symptoms, risk factors and negative outcomes

-The overall positively answered mean score was 67.3%

-Mean scores for knowledge of signs and symptoms 63.5%, risk factors, 63.5% and negative outcomes 75%


Use of likert scale enhanced results analysis


The study was open for interviewer and respondent bias

Flagg et al. 2010, Midwest, USA [19]

Assess the power of registered nurses to recognize delirium on medical-surgical and intensive care units

-90% identified the hyperactive symptoms of delirium

-77% were able to identify the hypoactive symptoms

-Lack of awareness that delirium assessment is necessary


Included participants from different wards enhancing the representation of participants


Use of a convenient sample limits generalization of results

Hamdan-Mansour et al. 2010, Jordan [20]

Explore nurses’ knowledge and management skills of delirium in critical care units

-Significant correlation between knowledge about delirium in patients in the ICU had positive nursing practice


Selection of participants on experience reduced selection bias


The study was limited to only critical care units

Fick et al. 2007, Southeast, USA [21]

Investigate nurses’ knowledge of Delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD)

-The nurses had a high level of general Psycho geriatric nursing knowledge as measured by the MSHAKE

-21% identified the hypo-active form of DSD

-41% correctly identified hypoactive delirium


Validated standardised tools were used


Participants number of 29 cannot allow generalisation results based on such a hospital study

Hosie et al. 2014, Australia [22]

Investigate palliative care nurses’ understandings, opinions and practices in delirium identification and assessment

-Systematic and structured delirium screening and assessment processes and application of the delirium diagnosis criteria are largely missing

-Use of ambiguous terminology to describe delirium symptoms contributes to ineffective practice


Qualitative design enhanced opinion understanding


Study tools were validated via pilot interviews.

Hare et al. 2008, Western Australia [23]

Assess delirium knowledge and risk factors in nurses, and find practical and educational implication of the study results

-The orthopaedic ward had the highest mean 78% for knowledge questions; the only ward utilised specific intervention to improve delirious/confused patients’ management


Use of self-reported questionnaire eased data collection


Use of questionnaire subjected it to recall bias on respondents