Concern for externalities

Substantive: Modified Utilitarism. The sum of all the affected individuals’ utility whereby the ethical judgment on trade-offs between different

individuals’ utility is done by someone who is assigned the role of defining the common good.

Procedural: Right-based individual procedural rights, e.g. the right to be

considered fairly and equally in the planning processes. Rules are applied for the protection of these rights.

Aggregation of private interests

Substantive: Utilitarianism. The aggregate of all the affected individuals’ private utility.


The good of the community determined by the public authority

Substantive: Unitary “objective” values providing a normative standard for the determination of the common good.

The good of the community determined through deliberation in the public sphere

Procedural: Dialogical interactive process

seeking consensus between the stakeholders. The public interest is realized through following procedural norms and rules of public discourse.