Concern for externalities:

“Public interest is an essential thing in planning. It is related to democracy and equality. Generalizing, there is somebody who wants to build as big and high as possible… but public interest takes parks and public spaces into account”. (city planner 2)

“City dwellers must have equal access to the good environment” (regional planner 4)

Aggregation of private interests:

“PI is not opposite to private interests… Land-owners and finance from the private sector are necessary. One must not forget about the principles of good environment but this is not a confrontation”. (city planner 1)

“Competition between municipalities is so hard that

environmental questions are not highlighted in a sufficient way. Also the ordinary citizen has been forgotten.

Municipalities just want good taxpayers and new

enterprises… When economy gets tighter one competes for everything”. (CEDTE 1)

“Municipalities should promote PI but now mostly

employment and business are highlighted… and even… I have been wondering … municipalities are becoming involved in all kinds of extraordinary businesses… This general

tendency can be noticed when you see what kind of

professionals municipalities hire as mayors … what kind of qualifications are sought for…” (CEDTE 5)


The good of the community determined by the public authority:

“From my point of view, the whole planning system tells about PI… PI has something to do with sustainable development and future generations. Developers, politicians, loud-speaking

neighbours, all kinds of professionals, they can speak for

themselves. But future generations cannot; silent and poor people cannot… One must consider everybody’s interest… And of course, business and city development must be taken into

account, too… And if we have an even broader point of view, climate change must be considered… So I understand PI as

everybody’s, all city-dwellers’ interest”. (city planner 2)

“Sometimes one (a planner) comes to a situation when one must promote PI by reminding about the whole”. (regional planner 1)

The good of the community determined through deliberation in the public sphere:

“PI exists when we discuss about values openly. Big projects are carried out, often aiming to improve competitiveness and entrepreneurship, but we don’t do it without values… One must think about PI; we must discuss and communicate”. (regional planner 1)