Aiming, as far as practicable, to devolve powers of decision making and implementation to as low a level of government as possible

Central governments or agencies are very powerful in conceiving and executing land development leaving local authorities as on-lookers. Projects conceived by local authorities tend to be subjected to central government control which may frustrate their execution.

The bulk of project conception and implementation was centralized in the Ministry of Lands with local governments as distant observers. Later on, the project was decentralized to select local authorities but without the backup, in terms of resources and political support that the Ministry of Lands enjoyed. Local authorities were not prepared to take over the project areas including land earmarked for public facilities.

Consideration of wider outcomes of decisions

Decisions made today may have short and long-term wide-ranging outcomes which need to be considered before action is taken

Many times, it is short-term narrowly defined outcomes that are considered particularly in the case of political expediency. Long-term economic, social and environmental outcomes are ignored or given low priority.

Long-term social, political economic and environmental impacts were not taken into consideration. There was no social or environmental impact assessment to inform the project.

Consensus oriented

Seeking a common stand between public authorities and the community involved.

Land development projects are characterized by a confrontational attitude between public authorities and the affected communities. Concepts like “land is public”, or, “public interests” are used to smother opposing views.

No community consensus was sought or obtained.