Data collection tools

Issue of study



Rego, Sousa, Marques, & Cunha (2012)


Authentic Leadership (AL), PsyCap, employees’ creativity

Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), PCQ, four items for employees’ creativity

To examine whether PsyCap is a predictor of creativity, AL is a predictor of employees’ PsyCap, and PsyCap is a partial mediator of the relationship between AL and creativity

201 employees and their supervisors in 33 commerce organizations in Portugal

Authentic leadership predicts employees’ creativity, both directly and through the mediating role of employees’ psychological capital. There is predictive value of AL for employees’ PsyCap

Rego, Sousa, Marques, & Cunha (2014)


Hope, positive affect, authentic leadership, employees’ creativity.

Three items for measuring positive affect, six items of the State Hope Scale, five items for creativity, 16 five-point items from the ALQ

To investigate whether (a) positive affect is a mediator between AL and creativity, (b) hope is a mediator between AL and creativity, and (c) hope is a mediator between positive affect and creativity

219 employees working in Portuguese retail organizations and their supervisors

AL predicts employees’ creativity, both directly and through the mediating role of employees’ hope. AL also predicts employees’ positive affect, which in turn predicts employees’ hope and, thus, creativity

Wang, Sui, Luthans, Wang, & Wu (2014)


AL, Leader-member exchange (LMX), PsyCap, Job performance, gender, age, education, organizational tenure

16-item ALQ, LMX 16-item scale, 24-item PsyCap questionnaire, four items for Job Performance, demographics

To investigate the moderating role of members’ PsyCap and the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX) in influencing the relationship between authentic leadership and members’ performance.

794 members and their immediate leaders

The positive relationship between AL and job performance is moderated by members’ PsyCap. LMX contributes to members’ performance contingent upon the members’ PsyCap

Roche, Haar, & Luthans (2014)


Mindfulness, PsyCap, anxiety, depression, burnout, age, education, firm size

Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, 12-item version of the PCQ, six items for anxiety and depression, three items of the PANAS, six items from the Burnout scale, demographics

To test the direct effect that the leaders’ level of mindfulness and the mediating effect of their psychological capital may have on their mental well-being

CEOs/presidents (n = 205), middle (n = 183), junior (n = 202), 107 entrepreneurs

Mindfulness was negatively related to leaders’ anxiety, depression, negative affect and entrepreneurs’ burnout. The model with PsyCap mediating the effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional outcomes fit the data best