Strauss, Niven, McClelland, & Cheung (2014)

Study 1: short-longitudinal

Studies 2 & 3: cross-sectional.

Task adaptivity, hope, optimism, positive affect, resilience, objective performance.

Task adaptivity 3-item scale, six-item SHS, subjective well-being. Objective performance was measured as average commission earned by each insurance agent in the current and previous month

Study 1: the relationship of hope and optimism with task adaptivity.

Study 2: to utilize supervisor ratings of task adaptivity.

Study 3: whether hope and optimism predict objective performance of insurance agents in China via their effect on task adaptivity

Study 1: 43 insurance company employees (UK)

Study 2: 111 employees of a police force

Study 3: 302 insurance agents

In Study 1, hope, but not optimism, was positively related to task adaptivity.

In Study 2, employees’ hope was positively related to supervisor’s ratings of employee task adaptivity.

In Study 3, hope had a significant indirect effect on insurance agents’ commission via task adaptivity, while the indirect effect of optimism was not significant

Brown & Mueller (2014)


Life satisfaction, social self-efficacy, hopeful thinking, Job procurement self-efficacy (JPSE)

Social Provisions Scale (SPS), SES, JPSE Scale was used to measure participants’ expectations of their capabilities to obtain employment, SHS, SWLS

To examine whether hopeful thinking, life satisfaction, and social self-efficacy predicted women’s expected capabilities to obtain employment beyond social support provisions

69 residents of a women’s homeless shelter in Midwest US region

JPSE was positively correlated with hope, although hopeful thinking did not found to predict women’s confidence to procure employment beyond the effect of social support