Data collection tools

Issue of study



Sezgin & Erdogan (2015)


Academic optimism, hope, zest for work, self-efficacy, perceived success

Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), Perceived Success Scale (PSS), Teacher Academic Optimism Scale (TAOS), Hope Scale (HS), Zest for Work Scale (ZWS)

To examine the direct and indirect predictive powers of academic optimism, hope, zest for work on teachers’ self-efficacy and perceived success.

600 teachers from 27 primary schools in Turkey

Significant positive relationships among teachers’ self-efficacy, perceived success, academic optimism, hope and zest for work

Reis & Hoppe (2015)

Two-wave online survey with a five month time lag

Affective well-being, hope, emotional demands and autonomy (perceived job characteristics)

WHO Well-being Index, four items (hope) from the short version of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), Dutch Questionnaire on Work Experience

To investigate (a) whether baseline levels and change in affective well-being are related to change in emotional demands and autonomy (b) the mediating role of hope.

326 psycho-therapists

Baseline levels of and change in affective well-being were associated with change in emotional demands. Change in hope mediated the effect of change in affective well-being or change in autonomy

Hirschi (2014)


Dispositional hope, career planning, decidedness, self-efficacy, proactive career behaviors, life- and job-satisfaction

THS, career planning, vocational identity scale, occupational self-efficacy scale, career engagement scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), brief index of affective job satisfaction

To investigate (a) how hope is related to career decidedness, planning, and self-efficacy beliefs and (b) whether career attitudes mediate the effects of hope on proactive career behaviors, life-, and job-satisfaction

1334 university students, 233 employees

Hope was significantly related, but distinct, from career variables. Hope had a direct effect on students’ proactive career behaviors as well as direct and indirect effects on students’ life satisfaction and employees’ job satisfaction

Valero, Hirschi, & Strauss (2015)


Hope, autonomous goals, positive affect, self-efficacy, job performance, turnover, core self-evaluations

Children’s hope scale, autonomous goals, multi-affect indicator, short occupational SES, job performance measure, turnover intentions measure, CSE scale

To evaluate whether hope affects job performance and turnover intention through goals, positive affective experience, and occupational self-efficacy beliefs

590 Swiss adolescents (apprentices) in vocational training

Hope was positively related to all three motivational states and supervisor-rated job performance and negatively related to turnover intentions