Data collection tools

Issue of study


Summary of findings

Feldman & Kubota



Hope, general self-efficacy,


GPAs, academic hope, academic self-efficacy

Adult Hope Scale (AHS), Domain-Specific Hope Scale (DSHS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R)

To test a path-analytic model including academic specific and generalized expectancies, GPAs and academic specific variables.

89 college students

General hope predicted academic hope and academic hope directly predicted GPAs. General hope predicted academic self-efficacy, which in turn predicted GPAs.

Sharabi, Sade, & Margalit



Students’ learning disabilities (LD),

Internet and smart-phone activities,

hope, optimism, sense of coherence (SOC), loneliness, academic self-efficacy

Loneliness scale, ASES,

Internet social, pleasure, interpersonal and avoidance coping subscales, Smartphone’s amount and social subscales, State Hope Scale, LOT-R, SOC

To examine (a) differences between students with and without LD and (b) predicting factors to students’ loneliness and academic self-efficacy.

178 female college students in two groups (59 with & 119 without LD)

Higher level of loneliness and lower levels of ASES in students with LD. Internet use for avoidance coping as a significant predictor for loneliness and ASES. LD was positively associated with online avoidance coping.

Gallagher, Marques, & Lopez



Semesters enrolled, GPAs, hope,


academic self-efficacy

DSHS, ASES, Gallup College Student Engagement Scale (GCSES)

The role of hope in predicting academic achievement in college.

229 students (across their 4 college years)

Hope, self-efficacy and engagement were correlated with the number of semesters and GPAs. Hope was the only factor that had unique effects when examining predictors and controlling for academic history.

Sung, Turner, & Kaewchinda




educational and career skills, educational and career outcome

AHS, mean of participants’ math, science, and language grades, Structured Career Development Inventory (SCDI)

Relationships between hope and educational and career skills and outcomes.

132 students from a public university

The agency aspect of hope predicted both skills and outcomes; skills or outcomes predicted agency. Pathways were not predictive, or predicted, by skills or outcomes.

Drysdale & McBeath



Type of education, gender, faculty, hope, self-efficacy, procrastination, study skills

Trait Hope Scale (THS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students (PASS), College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES), Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI)

Relationships between participation in cooperative education and several psychological constructs related to success in both academic and professional settings.

1224 undergraduate

“cooperative” students and 746 “non-cooperative” students

Females scored higher on hope scale.

No significant main effect of cooperative education for hope, self-efficacy, procrastination.