Main trends




Technological advance and simultaneous change in land tenure and forest management have decrease deforestation


Switzerland and France

Second half of 1900’s Mid 1900’s

Agriculture intensification, rural exodus and

farmland abandonment lead to forest recovery.

Additionally, changes in the

energy sector (from wood age to fossil fuels) decreased logging.


Southern of the USA

1935 to 1975

Agriculture improvements in yield associated with forest expansion.

Nevertheless, deforestation and farm expansion occurred in the prairies, showing that deforestation was shifting towards the west


China, India and Vietnam


Technification of agriculture, urbanization and rural exodus occurred simultaneously, as the decrease in deforestation changing from deforestation to positive net gain.



1975 to 2005

Bi-causal relationship between cocoa output and deforestation, showing that increasing yields leads to higher deforestation rates.


North west Argentina

1972 to 2001

Introduction of intensive high yield soybeans plantation increased deforestation.



1976 to 2000

Market-based and urban oriented economy and agriculture intensification of commodity production was associated to deforestation.



1990 to 2000

The country has increased its forest cover by 40% while simultaneously decreasing agriculture output and agriculture intensification degree.


South America

1970 to 2001

Effects of agriculture intensification on farming expansion depend on the quality and type of governance. Countries with a market oriented governance show positive relationship of intensification on farmland expansion, while in countries with high quality environmental governance agriculture intensification is possible without further agriculture enlargement



1970 to 2005

Agriculture intensification of ten most important crops was not correlated with crop land decrease or stasis. In many situations, agriculture intensification actually increased agricultural area.



1980 to 2000

Weak tendency of staple crops yield increase associated with reducing farmland expansion in developing countries and no evidence at all for developed countries. Areas of natural forests were smaller in countries where yield increased more.