Mother-child connection

Maternal wellbeing

Children’s social skills

Focus group interviews

Mothers agreed that it was “Important to spend time with the kids”, the only time to get together during school

Young mothers said “Glad I did it since my son loved it” “Happy I did it”

Child was “More interactive with more kids,” learned to sing to herself, play peek-a-boo

Participant observation of music classes

Mothers were smiling, cuddling; learning how to interact with children; pairs enjoyed being together (laughing, touching)

Mothers were more congenial, conversational, mutually supportive; mothers smiling at babies, at one another, holding each others’ infants

Children were communicating with each other; toddlers were dancing, following instructions and putting toys away

Video footage, photographs

Mothers and children were enjoying baby massage, peek-a-boo, mutual laughter, cuddling and reading together

Chatting and laughter, mothers smiling at each other and connecting with other infants

Child learning to clap, toddler giving baby a hug, children observing one another

Individual interviews

・ with mothers

・ with music instructor

Classes supported relationships: “helped me connect with the group and her” (child)

Mothers enjoyed watching children have fun and interacting, comparable to adult mothers

Connections with the group: “I guess I’m closer with the moms,” mothers “liked everything”

Community bonding similar to classes of adult mothers

Mothers said children liked having fun, playing with toys, and “the singing”

Social and cognitive skills appeared similar to those of children of adult mothers