Behavior Training


Forcing themselves to behave differently from how they are feeling.

Maag, 2008

Special Training for behavior is necessary; communicating knowledge is not sufficient; work of teaching.

Forzani, 2014 ; Loewenberg Ball & Forzani, 2009, 2010


While field experiences are essential, they often encourage replication rather than critical questioning.

Sleeter, 2008

Experiences and Reflection


Reflections on experiences may lead to changes in beliefs.

Walkington, 2005

Through exploring their beliefs about teaching, students can be assisted in reflecting critically on the decisions they make and can learn to monitor their own professional development.

Leavy et al. 2007

Little or no professional pedagogical knowledge of value can be learned other than through experience.

Zeichner, 2003


Reflection with case studies. Case studies find a single such experience as likely to reinforce deficit perspectives about students.

Sleeter, 2008

“Teachers have typically bridged the knowing-doing gap by having experience and improvising.” Some teachers left to learn through experience to manage their classrooms using harshly punitive methods.

Loewenberg Ball & Forzani, 2009: p. 42


Didactic instruction s about basic concepts, skills, experiences, case studies and simulations.

Jones, 2006

Approximations of practice as a complex interplay of learning and competency, identity work.

Trent, 2013