Traditional learning

Flipped learning

Learning cycle

Teacher-centered approach.

Students passively listen to lectures in class.

Student-centered approach.

Pre-class activities (videos/discussion boards).


Dominants and control the learning environment.

Create the learning material.

Facilitators for the learning process.

Students can contribute to the learning material.


Passive learners.

All students follow predetermined paths for learning.

Active participants.

Personalized and flexible learning paths.

Learning environment

Rigid and difficult to customize.

Limited use of information technology.

Flexible and adaptive.

Innovative adoption of information technology.