Binomial name

Edible part

Way/mode of ussage (in human nutrition)

Culinary use of ESHs in the Republic of Moldova

Sources: [18] [17] [15]

(the results of the interview)

Borago officinalis L.

Flowers, leaves, oil

Leaves: raw or cooked. They can be used as a potherb or be added to salads. They are also added whole as a flavoring to various drinks such as Pimms and wine-based drinks. The leaves have a salty cucumber flavor. The leaves should always be used fresh, because they lose their flavor and color if dried.

Flowers: raw. They are used as a decorative garnish on salads and summer fruit drinks. A refreshing tea is made from the leaves and/or the flowers. An edible blue dye can be obtained from the flowers. It is used to color vinegar.

The leaves smell like cucumber, have a sweet-sour taste. Use young leaves that blush, then harden. They are made into soups-creams, sauces for noodles (noodles—fine pasta made of wheat flour and egg). The flowers: have a sweet taste and are used to decorate salads and desserts. In modern cuisine, flowers are used to make jams. The flowers of Borago officinali L. are also consumed in their natural state, mainly by children, absorbing the sweet nectar of the flowers.

Cichorium intybus L.

Flowers, leaves, roots

Leaves: raw or cooked. The leaves are rather bitter, especially when the plants are flowering. The blanched leaves are often used in winter salads (they are known as chicons) and are also cooked. The unblanched leaves are much less bitter in winter and make an excellent addition to salads at this time of year.

Flowers: raw. An attractive addition to the salad bowl, but rather bitter.

Root: cooked like parsnip. The boiled young roots form a very palatable vegetable. The root is said to be an ideal food for diabetics because of its inulin content. Roots are used in seasoning soups, sauces and gravies, and to impart a rich deep color. The roasted root is used as a caffeine-free coffee adulterant or substitute. Young roots have a slightly bitter caramel flavor when roasted.

In the diet of children in the form of tea.

Chicory root is used to abstain from a coffee-like drink [43] .

Malva sylvestris L.

Flowers, leaves, seeds

Leaves: raw or cooked. Mucilaginous with a mild pleasant flavor, they are nice in soups where they act as a thickener. The young leaves also make a very acceptable substitute for lettuce in a salad.

Immature seed: raw. Used as a nibble, the seeds have a nice nutty flavor. Flowers: raw. Added to salads or used as a garnish. The leaves are a tea substitute.

The fresh or dehydrated and crushed plant is used in teas, infusions.

The leaves and flowers are used in salads. In some parts of MD they are used for sarmale.

The fruit, which has the shape of a coil or a cheese wheel, is a delight for children, eaten raw.

Papaver rhoeas L.

Flowers, leaves, oil, seeds

Seed: raw or cooked. Much used as a flavoring in cakes, bread, fruit salads, etc., it imparts a very nice nutty flavor. The seeds are perfectly safe to eat, containing none of the alkaloids associated with other parts of the plant.

Leaves: raw or cooked. Used like spinach or as a flavoring in soups and salads. The leaves should not be used after the flower buds have formed. Edible oil is obtained from the seed. Said to be an excellent substitute for olive oil, it can be used in salad dressings or for cooking. Syrup can be prepared from the scarlet flower petals, it is used in soups, gruels, etc. A red dye from the petals is used as a food flavoring, especially in wine [28] .

Poppy seeds are widely used, especially in pastries: as a filling for pies, rolled, for decoration. It is added to bakery products.

It is also added to salads, to meat products.

More recently, the use of leaves (raw but also cooked) has gained a new revival, being used in salads or vegetable stews.