Decision maker on port choice

Port choice criteria (in order of importance)



Costs, port operations quality, port location, frequency of shipping services, speed/time, service efficiency, port efficiency, port facilities, port information systems, hinterland connections, port congestion, port services, flexibility for special cargo

Slack (1985), Branch (1986), Murphy et al. (1992), Murphy and Daley (1994), Kumar and Vijay (2002), Nir et al. (2003), Tiwari et al. (2003), Malchow and Kanafani (2001), Malchow and Kanafani (2004), Song and Yeo (2004), Cullinane et al. 2005), Guy and Urli (2006), Ugboma et al. (2006), De Langen (2007), Leachman (2008), De Martino and Morvillo (2008)


Port efficiency, port operations quality, reputation, cost, frequency, location, speed/time, port information systems, hinterland connections

Slack (1985), Bird and Bland (1988), Murphy et al. (1992), Tongzon (1995), Tongzon and Sawant (2007), De Langen (2007), Grosso and Monteiro (2008), De Martino and Morvillo (2008), Tongzon (2009)

Shipping Companies

Cost, port location, port facilities, port operations quality, speed/time, port efficiency, port congestion, frequency of shipping services, hinterland links, port information systems, information availability, port administration, port services, flexibility for special cargo

Murphy et al. (1992), Lirn et al. (2004), Ha (2003), Song and Yeo (2004), Shintani et al. (2007), De Martino and Morvillo (2008), Meersman et al. (2008)

Terminal Operators

Port facilities, port operations quality, cost, location, hinterland connections, Port information systems, port congestion, port efficiency

Song and Yeo (2004), Acosta et al. (2007), Meersman et al. (2008), Wiegmans et al. (2008)