Meta-cognitive strategies

Advanced organizers

Making a general but comprehensive preview of the concept or principle in an anticipated learning activity.

Advance preparation

Planning for and rehearsing linguistic component necessary to carry out an upcoming language task.


Correcting one’s speech for accuracy in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, or for appropriateness related to the setting or to the people who are present.


Checking the outcomes of his language learning against an internal measure of completeness and accuracy.

(Taken from O’Malley and Chamot’s classification of learning strategies, 1990).