Bayram, et al. [1] 2011

Hospital bed surge capacity mathematically benchmarked to be 18% of the staffed hospital bed capacity. This is defined as ratio of Emergency beds to emergency time to each critical patient.

Hirshberg, et al. [7] 2005

Surge capacity is defined in sigmoid shaped curve based on global level of care.

Rivera, et al. [10] 2006

The capacity measured in two type of trauma centers. ED throughput in 6 hours in level I trauma centers (median 39 ED beds) was 117 patients and 75 patients in level II centers (median 25 ED beds).

De Boer, et al. [11] 1999

Mathematical method of each hospital could care for a number of critically and moderately injured patients equivalent to 0.5 to 1 patient per 100 hospital beds per hour.

Halpen, et al. [8] 2003

So many items were evaluated such the use of personal protective equipment, needs assessment, the mobilization of human and material resources, the organization and performance of triage, the management of explosion-specific injuries, the organization of patient flow through the ED, and the efficient determination of patient disposition.

Hick, et al. [9] 2004

From facility level to higher part, surge capacity should be considered and activated in multiple levels .Plans for “surge capacity” must thus be made to accommodate a large number of patients.