Category from Anderson (2009)

Relevant data


The spoken words and actions provided in the narrative


(Normative practices from synchronic)

Courtney posing question, Matthew listening and responding, Matthew looking at Courtney as she speaks and remaining quiet. These practices are normative because they are the expected behavior between students and instructors in university classes in the US.


(Links from past, present, or future events determined through interviews)

Courtney: Here Im thinking Please someone.” Because I do this a lot where Ill ask people to share and I have a couple of select students that are usually willing to. But I really would like more. I recognize that its hard to get that.

Matthew: If I dont raise my hand and nobody else does either. She ends up sort of like pausing and so I didnt want that happen The other thing was I dont really get bothered by raising my hand in class and talking as much as I think some other people do. So, if its something I understand and I dont really mind raising a hand.

Cara: You said that you wanted to raise your hand, so she wouldnt pause. So, were you motivated by keeping the class moving forward?

Matthew: Yes, thats it. I never really like the long pauses that happen when my instructors are trying to drag things out of you.

Both Courtney and Matthew are linking past events in class to their action in the moment.


(Positions determined by considering the synchronic, intertextual, and intercontextual)


● Positions self as authority figure based on normative practices of university classes.

● Positions self as helpless based on need for students to participate

● Positions students as powerful because they hold the power to move the class forward


● Positions self as student based on normative practices of university classes

● Positions self as powerful based on ability to move the class forward through answering a question and reducing wait time

● Positions self as helpful to class based on ability to raise hand in contrast to other students