Heavy metal


Effect(s) to human health



Weathering of natural mineral, production of paints, dyes and soaps, arsenical pesticides and fertilizers.

Lungs, liver, bladder and skin cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological problems, diabetes mellitus, reduced erythrocyte and leucocyte production, hypertension, nausea and vomiting, skin lesion (pigmentation and keratosis).



Production of Cu, Pb and Zn, production of alkaline batteries and electrode components, production of pigments, plastic stabilizers, fertilizers.

Kidney and skeletal damage, disturbance in Zn metabolism, reduced haemoglobin and haematocrit concentration, stomach irritation, vomiting and diarrhea.

[34] [40] [54]


Fossil fuel combustion, mining activities, smelting and refining process of copper, industry of copper-based material.

Kidney and liver damage, anaemia, gastrointestinal problems.



Mining activities, weathering process.

DNA damage, gastrointestinal problems.

[40] [56]


Ceramic and glass industry, production of aluminium and batteries, production of pharmaceutical drugs.

Kidney failure.

[57] [58]


Oil spillage, combustion of coal and fuel oil, steel industry, forest fire, rocks weathering.

Various kinds of cancer, various respiratory problems, heart disorders, birth defects.

[54] [59]