Happell, Byrne, Platania-Phung, Harris, Bradshaw, and Davies (2014) [50] ; social contact.

To measure the impact of a course delivered by an individual with mental illness on nursing students’ attitudes towards people with mental illness as well as their intentions to a pursue a career in psychiatric mental health nursing in the future.

The course delivered by a person with mental illness continued for 12 weeks with a primary focus on recovery. The contents included understanding of the recovery in mental health context, the role of nurses in the recovery process, and the importance of collaboration with patients with mental illness to promote recovery.

Nursing students who attended the course delivered by the individual with mental illness showed positive changes in their intentions to pursue a future career in psychiatric mental health nursing and a decrease in their negative stereotypes towards people with mental illness.

Imperio (2016) [41] ; video-based social contact.

To assess the effect of a filmed-contact intervention delivered to student nurses on minimizing their stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness.

The filmed-contact intervention video was a TED Talks video in which a woman talked about successfully managing her schizophrenia; currently holding a doctorate degree in law and teaching in a reputable university.

Reduction in stigmatizing attitudes of nursing students towards people with mental illness.

İnan, Günüşen, Duman, and Ertem (2018) [51] ; both social contact and video-based social contact.

To assess the effect of module on psychiatric mental health nursing, clinical practice, and anti-stigma program on the attitudes of student nurses towards mental illness.

The anti-stigma program lasted for 8 sessions over 4 days; with each session lasted from 120 to 180 minutes. The program included the following: interactive information, group discussions, video presentations, watching documentary films portraying the lives of patients with schizophrenia, reviewing articles, activities, visiting patients with schizophrenia and their families in their own communities and interacting with them.

Positive changes in student nurses’ dangerousness attitudes and their social distance from people with mental illness.

Itzhaki, Meridan, Sagiv-Schifter, and Barnoy (2016) [52] ; both social contact and video-based social contact.

To assess changes in attitudes and intentions to work with patients with mental illness among student nurses after an intervention of mental health.

The intervention was delivered during a mental health nursing course. It lasted for 70 hours and involved five parts:

1) A face-to-face meeting with two persons with mental illness (one had schizophrenia and the other had mood disorder) who shared their lived experiences about mental illness.

2) A meeting with a woman who suffered from anorexia nervosa in her teens.

3) A 50-minutes film on a doctoral degree holder in psychology, who told her story of living with mental illness since her adolescence, followed by discussions.

4) Two simulations by an actress who played a persona of a manic or a depressive patient in acute phase.

5) Lectures about mental illness and treatments delivered by mental health nurses.

The intervention resulted in improving of student nurses’ attitudes towards patients with mental illness but did not result in improving their intentions to work with those patients.