Study Design

Quality Rating

Population/ Sample

Intervention/ Comparisons


Nalk, Nalk P., Faridi, M.M.A., Batra, P., Madhu, S.V. Oral Supplementation of Parturient Mothers with Vitamin D and its Effect on 25OHD Status of Exclusively Breastfed Infants at 6 Months of Age: A Double-blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial. 2017, Breastfeed Med. 12:621-9.

Reference [19]

Randomized Controlled Trial


100 exclusively breastfeeding mother/infant pairs in Turkey

Group 1: Maternal supplement of 600,000 IU vitamin D3 in 10 divided doses in early postpartum

Group 2: Placebo

Measurement of maternal and infant 5(OH)D at initiation of study and at 6 months of age. Radiographically determined and biochemical indices (Alkaline phosphatase) in infants

Maternal 25(OH)D levels after 6 months of study were greater (40.3 ± 21.6 ng/mL) in supplemented vs (22.9 ± 20.18 ng/mL) in controls. Infant levels were also higher (29.29 ± 14.67 ng/m) in those fed by supplemented mothers compared to 15.73 ± 17.73 ng/mL in controls. After 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding only one mother and four infants had serum 25 (OH) D levels < 11ng/ml in the supplemented group (n = 53) vs 9 mothers and 25 infants (n = 57) in the control. 2 infants in each group developed clinical rickets.

Wheeler BJ, Taylor BJ, Herbison P, et al. High-Dose Monthly Maternal Cholecalciferol Supplementation during Breastfeeding Affects Maternal and Infant Vitamin D Status at 5 Months Postpartum: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Nutr. 2016, 146:1999-2006.

Reference [2]

Randomized Controlled Trial


87 exclusively breastfeeding mother/infant pairs in New Zealand

Group 1: Placebo

Group 2: 50,000 IU vitamin D3 per month

Group 3: 100,000 IU vitamin D3 per month

Maternal supplementation with 50,000 IU and 100,000 IU vitamin D resulted in significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at study end compared to placebo (p = 0.043; p = 0.001, respectively). Infant change in serum 25(OH)D was not significant between groups (p = 0.67; p = 0.13, respectively). 26% of mothers in the placebo group exhibited vitamin D deficiency, compared to 4% in the 50,000 IU group and 0% in the 100,000 IU group at study end (p = 0.002). Deficiency rates between infants in all groups were similar (27%, 29%, and 19%, respectively; p = 0.65).