School of Thought

British School

Italian School

French School


German Morphology

Typology Study

Italian school of thought, ideas of Boudon and Lefebvre

Unit of Analysis

Map Unit

Element or Basic cell



Current situation with emphasizing of alteration procedures

Current situation with consideration of the past’s, without considering the process and procedures of alteration

Development of a type of critical design in order to reach the effects of urban design theories

Research Layers

City map (Streets and their system, land sites and their assembly in blocks and their design), buildings’ form and function

Elements (buildings),

Creation of elements (urban tissue), constructions system and organism of systems (urban and rural regions)

Adding visual elements (3D study of townscape) and perceptive elements (perception of occupants and benefiters) to Italian school of thought

Purpose of Study

Descriptive-explanative aims

Prescriptive aims

Analysing the design theories of construction of cities in the past.

Founders and Scholars

Larkham, Conzen, Whitehand

Muratori, Caniggia

Panerai, Castex

Academic Institutes


(INA) Istituo Nazionaledelle Assicurazioni, University of Rome and The Florentine group

National architecture school of Versailles