Type of Effect


Creating new markets for the sale of traditional products

equality of employment opportunities in the society (Mccool, 1995)

increasing labor supply (Harseel, 1994)

increasing the quality of life (Harseel, 1994)

creating jobs and increasing public revenues

expansion of hidden export (Harseel, 1994)


Attraction of population

general freshness and happiness because of wide presence of tourists

promoting residents’ quality of life

strengthening the pride of host communites and spirit of correlation

Improving awareness of the inhabitants

revival of local arts and traditions


Development of new facilities and infrastructure (Shahabian, 2010)

Protection of ancient heritage

Modernization and repairing of buildings and historical sites (Lea, 1988)

Changing use of old buildings on the basis of new needs (Lea, 1988) .

Attention to the cleanliness of tourist sites. (Shahabian, 2010)

Increasing residents’ natural and cultural awareness