Lactobacillus brevis producedmaximum lactic acid concentration (39.1 g/l) by the fermentation of acid hydrolysate of corncob with 56.9 g/l total sugars in 48 h.


Rice husk

Through co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis, maximum 20.8 g/l of ethanol produced from rice husk hydrolyzate containing 70 g/l of reducing sugars


Acid hydrolysate of rice husk fermented to xylitol by Candida guilliermondii and Candida tropicalis and highest yield of xylitol was achieved upto 64.0% (w/w).


Maximam hydrogen yield (0.74 mmol H2/g-VS added straw) was obtained from anaerobic co-digestion of rice straw and sewage sludge



Cellulase activity observed (213.4 IU/g cellulose) in submerged fermentation by Trichoderma reeseiZU-02 using corn cob as substrate


Fermentation of corncob hemicellulose powder containing 4.5 g/l as xylan content produced 3.01 g/l of xylitol by Candida tropicalis.


Maximum 119 ml H2/g corn cob produced from enzymatic hydrolysate of corn cob by the fermentation through Clostridium hydrogeniproducens HR-1


Maize (corn) stover

Highest yields of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and β-xylosidase were observed 304, 4.1, 0.140, 1840 and 0.041 U/g of corn stover by Fusarium oxysporum under SSF conditions


Hydrolysis of corn stover released 97% of the sugars and fermented completely by Clostridium beijerinckii in 60 h resulting in a productivity of acetone-butanol (0.34 g∙L−1∙h−1).


Total soluble sugar (562.1 mg/g-TVS) obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of acid pretreatment of cornstalk which produced maximum hydrogen yield (209.8 ml/g-TVS) achieved by anaerobic mixed microflora


Highest biogas yield of 372.4 L/kg VS was obtained by anaerobic digestion of 5% NaOH-pretreated corn stover


Highest methane yield of 216.7 and 206.6 mL CH4/g VS obtained from 3% H2O2 and 8% Ca(OH)2 treated corn straw by anaerobic digestion


Sugarcane bagasse

FPase (24.15 U/gds) achieved in optimized conditions by Trichoderma reeseiRUT C30 using sugarcane bagasse as substrate under SSF


Pretreated sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed by crude enzyme from Penicilliumchrysogenum BCC4504 and Aspergillus flavus BCC7179and bagasse hydrolysate was converted into ethanol (0.29 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars).


Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate converted into xylitol (yield 61.5%) byCandida guilliermondii FTI 20037.


Hydrogen yield of 1.86 mol H2/mol total sugar achieved by the fermentation of acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse


Paper mill sludge

Yield of cellulase (307 FPU/g glucan of de-ashed paper mill sludge) was achieved by Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed to produce 24.4 g/L of ethanol


Fermentation by Pichia stipitis produced 18.6 g/L of ethanol from 178.6 g/L of dried recycled paper sludge with conversion yield of 51% of the available carbohydrates.


In Semi-continuous simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of paper sludge containing 100 g/L cellulose equivalent, with 4 days residence time and 15FPU/g of cellulase loading, two strains of Bacillus coagulans produced 80.6 and 81.7 g/L of lactic acid respectively.


Highest methane yield (0.32 m3 CH4/kg VS) was obtained from pretreated paper mill sludge



Pretreated sunflower hulls hydrolyzed by cellulase from Trichoderma reesei Rut C 30 up to 59.8% saccharification yield and ethanol produced (0.454 g/g) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus using the concentrated hydrolyzate.


Highest methane production (259 mL CH4/g VS) achieved after pretreatment of sunflower stalk at 55˚C with 4% NaOH by anaerobic digestion


Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

Maximum ethanol yield (0.35 g/g sugars) obtained from water-hyacinth hemicellulose acid hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124.


Maximum saccharification yield (71%) obtained by using cellulases and xylanases from Trichodermareesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956 and the hydrolyzate was converted into ethanol (4.4 g/L) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.