Fügemann (2004)

· Responsibility (legal perspective)

· “Effective power to act of institutions that determines according to the fulfillment of a specific task the means available” (p. 146) (legal perspective)

Hoffmann (1999)

· Observable performance/standard or quality of the outcome of the performance (output-based “in making the demonstration of competent performance an … observable measure of human performance”) (p. 284)

· Underlying attributes of a person (input-based to design instruction)

Klieme & Hartig (2008)

· Jurisdiction and disposal over means of enforcement (Sociology Max Weber),

· Universal, inherited modularized ability to acquire the mother tongue (Linguistics. Chomsky),

· Learnable context-specific performance dispositions that relate functionally to situations and demands in specific domains (pragmatic-functional psychology).

Müller-Ruckwitt (2008)

· Coincide/coincidence

· Targeting

· Ability to objectify (through general claim juristically grounded entitlement

· Responsibility

· Permitted action space (reference object)

· Harmony of ought and can: task and ability

Norris (1991)

· Behaviorist construct: Description of behavior and the situation in which it takes place

· Generic construct: general abilities

· Cognitive construct

Roeger (2016, p. 159)

Subject-specific ability to reliably fulfill subject-specific demands under normal circumstances.

Short (1985)

· Behavior or performance (a logical or empirical connection between specific behavior or performances and some unit of competence must be demonstrated (this conception not employed)

· Command of knowledge or skills (not easy to determine what knowledge and skills persons require if they are to be competent)

· Degree or level of capability deemed sufficient (in case of complex action difficult value judgment)

· Quality of a person or as a state of being (when the quality being judged is fully explicated and justified, is a simple and objective process)

Stoof et al. (2002)

· Objectivist point of view: Criteria: truth of definition

· Constructivist point of view: Criteria: viability of definition: Extent to which the constructed definition has proved to be adequate in the context in which it is used.

Weinert (1999)

· Intellectual abilities: general and domain-specific (general psychological dispositional construct),

· Cognitive abilities, skills, knowledge, strategies, routines necessary for mastering specific demands, expectations and performance criteria (specific performance disposition),

· Motivation: subjective estimation of personal performance resources and related motivational action tendencies.