Design & Aim



Key Findings


Briegel-Jones, Knowles, Eubank, Giannoulatos, & Elliot (2013)

Mixed methods design

Aim: To examine the effects of a 10-week yoga intervention on mindfulness and

dispositional flow of elite youth swimmers

Qualitative Survey (10-week Sivananda Yoga Program),

Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure

(CAMM) and DFS-2

21 elite youth swimmers

(10 males, 11 females;

M age = 13.24 years, SD = 1.51 years)

selected from two affiliated national training sites of the

Amateur Swimming Association in the UK

No significant changes in mindfulness and dispositional flow were identified (CAMM, was no significant interaction

effect between time and group (F[1, 19] = 0.44, p = .837), DFS-2, no significant interaction effect between time and group (F[1, 19] = 3.41, p =.08)

However, the intervention had a positive impact on a range of physiological, cognitive, and performance parameters that included elements of mindfulness and flow.


Hutchinson, Karageorghis, & Jones (2014)

Cross-sectional study

Aim: To examine the effects of music and music-video on a range of psychological and psychophysical variables during treadmill running at intensities above and below

ventilatory threshold (VT).

Participants exercised at 10% of maximal

capacity below VT and 10% above under music-only, music-video, and control conditions.

Feeling Scale (FS),

Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), Tammen’s single-item attentional focus scale,

Borg’s Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE) scale, and

Experimental Testing Heart Rate (HR)

24 habitually active

participants (14 men and 10 women) Mage = 21.3 years, SD = 3.9; MBMI = 23.55, SD = 2.14

The music-video condition elicited the highest levels of dissociation, lowest RPE, and most positive affective responses regardless of exercise intensity. Attentional manipulations influence psychological and psychophysical variables at exercise intensities above and below VT, and this effect is enhanced by the combined presentation of auditory and visual stimuli.


Bortoli, Bertollo, Hanin, & Robazza (2012)

Longitudinal design

Aim: To help improve, stabilize, and optimize their performances during practice and competition (use of a multi-action plan intervention model)

1) Shooters described their optimal sequence of actions for the execution of a single shot from the start

2) They identified three or four of the most important core components to optimal performance

3) They assessed themselves by rating the quality of each core component

4) The core components were further assessed under conditions of increased distress and simulated competition

15 Italian shooters (Mage = 27.9 years, SD = 8.1) of the London 2012 Olympics

MAP improved individual’s awareness of the core components and management of distressful conditions during shooting similar to those found in competition. Direct emotion, self-regulation treatments have been successfully applied in sports where performers were trained to either decrease or increase their levels of competitive self-confidence, anxiety, and pleasant/unpleasant emotional states to achieve their optimal states and to perform moptimally. Emotion-focused strategies can be used in combination with action-focused strategies to maintain or regain optimal performance.