Koehn, Morris, & Watt (2013b)

Repeated-measures design


1) To examine main and interaction effects between imagery use and confidence on flow state in different performance contexts,

2) To assess main and interaction effects between flow state, imagery, and confidence on self-paced service and externally-paced groundstroke performance in tennis



Performance was measured through shot accuracy, which was based on a point system ranging between 24 and 96 points

60 junior tennis players frequently competed in tennis tournaments Mage = 13.83, SD = 1.45; Μyears playing tennis = 5.83; M hours of training per week = 7.57.

A significant correlation between imagery x confidence was found for flow state in the groundstroke (p value = .04, p < .05) but not in the service task (p = .27, p < .05).

Flow state appeared to have a little higher significance in the externally- paced groundstroke performance (r = .33; p < .05) than in the self-paced task service performance (r = .28; p < .05).


Fullager, Knight, & Sovern (2013)



Aim: To examine the relationship among challenge/skill

balance, flow, and performance anxiety

Per week after practicing, students answered the FSS-2 and a series of questions that assessed:

1) the perceived challenge (2 items),

2) perceived skill (2 items), and

3) anxiety

(single-item) while playing each passage of the music piece

27 music university students (14 men, 13 women) Mage = 21.71 years; M No of recitals given = 3.59, SD = 3.32

Flow and performance anxiety appeared to be negatively correlated (r = −.57, p < .05). Also, significant negative correlation emerged between flow and challenge/skill balance (r = −.62, p < .05).


Swann, Keegan, Piggot, Crust, & Smith (2012)

Qualitative study,

Aim: To investigate the occurrence of flow in elite golfers

Semi-structured interviews

13 male professional golfers

Mage = 33.5 years, SD = 9.28; M experience = 11.8 years, SD = 10.28

Facilitators of flow found to be: motivation to perform, effective preparation, appropriate focus, positive state, letting it happen, psychological interventions, optimal environmental and situational conditions, optimal arousal, maintenance of physical state, pre-shot routine, and playing well.


Swann, Piggot, Crust, Keegan, & Hemmings


Qualitative study

Aim: To explore the specific ways in which facilitators influenced flow

occurrence in European Tour golfers



Data were interpreted using an iterative process of thematic and connecting analyses

10 male professional golfers who had all played full-time on the European Tour for at least one full season.

10 facilitators of flow were identified, of which commitment and the caddie have not been reported previously, and confidence and concentration also emerged as key constructs.

24 connecting links were identified in the data, through which the caddie, effective preparation, and high-quality performance appeared to be most influential for flow occurrence.


Swann, Keegan,

Crust, & Piggot (2016)

Mixed-method multiple case study

Aim: To better understand the occurrence and experience of flow in elite golf

1) direct


2) performance data, and

3) interviews

10 male professional golfers. 4 players had competed full-time on the European

Tour 2, 2 had won European Tour events. 2 had competed full-time on the Challenge Tour, with nine Challenge Tour wins between them.

2 different states were described as: 1) “letting it happen” which corresponded with the definition and description of flow; and 2) “making it happen” which was more effortful and intense, involved a heightened awareness of the situation.