Cluster A (odd disorders)

・ Paranoid personality disorder: characterised by a pattern of irrational suspicion and mistrust of others, interpreting motivations as malevolent

・ Schizoid personality disorder: lack of interest and detachment from social relationships, apathy and restricted emotional expression

・ Schizotypal personality disorder: a pattern of extreme discomfort interacting socially, distorted cognitions and perceptions

Moving Away from People

・ The need for self-sufficiency and independence; while most desire some autonomy, the neurotic may simply wish to discard other individuals entirely.

・ The need for perfection; while many are driven to perfect their lives in the form of well-being, the neurotic may display a fear of being slightly flawed.

・ Lastly, the need to restrict life practices to within narrow borders; to live as inconspicuous a life as possible.

Moving Away from People

Excitable Moody and hard to please; intense but short-lived enthusiasm for people, projectsor things

Sceptical: Cynical, distrustful and doubting others’ true intentions

Cautious: Reluctant to take risks for fear of being rejected or negatively evaluated

Reserved: Aloof, detached and uncommunicative; lacking interest in or awareness of the feelings of others

Leisurely: Independent; ignoring people’s requests and becoming irritated or argumentative if they persist

Cluster B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)

・ Antisocial personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, lack of empathy, bloated self-image, manipulative and impulsive behaviour

・ Borderline personality disorder: pervasive pattern of instability in relationships, self-image, identity, behaviour and affects often leading to self-harm and impulsivity

・ Histrionic personality disorder: pervasive pattern of attention-seeking behaviour and excessive emotions

・ Narcissistic personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and a lack of empathy

Moving Against People

・ The need for power; the ability to bend wills and achieve control over others ? while most persons seek strength, the neurotic may be desperate for it

・ The need to exploit others; to get the better of them. To become manipulative, fostering the belief that people are there simply to be used

・ The need for social recognition; prestige and limelight

・ The need for personal admiration; for both inner and outer qualities―to be valued

・ The need for personal achievement; though virtually all persons wish to make achievements, as with No. 3, the neurotic may be desperate for achievement

Moving Against People

Bold: Unusually self-confident; feelings of grandiosity and entitlement; over valuation of one’s capabilities

Mischievous: Enjoying risk taking and testing the limits; needing excitement; manipulative, deceitful, cunning and exploitative

Colourful: Expressive, animated and dramatic; wanting to be noticed and needing to be the centre of attention Imaginative Acting and thinking in creative and sometimes odd or unusual ways

Cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders)

・ Avoidant personality disorder: pervasive feelings of social inhibition and inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation

・ Dependent personality disorder: pervasive psychological need to be cared for by other people

・ Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (not the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder): characterised by rigid conformity to rules

Moving Toward People

・ The need for affection and approval; pleasing others and being liked by them

・ The need for a partner; one whom they can love and who will solve all problems

Moving Toward People

Diligent: Meticulous, precise and perfectionistic, inflexible about rules and procedures; critical of others

Dutiful: Eager to please and reliant on others for support and guidance; reluctant to take independent action or to go against popular opinion