Parasuraman, Berry, & Zeithaml (1991)

1. Access

2. Communication

3. Competence

4. Courtesy

5. Credibility

6. Reliability

7. Responsiveness

8. Security

9. Tangibility

10. Understanding


Lytle, Hom and Mokwa (1998)

1. Customer treatment

2. Employee empowerment

3. Service technology

4. Service failure prevention

5. Service failure recovery

6. Service standards communication

7. Service vision

8. Servant leadership

9. Service rewards

10. Service training

Electronic-Customer Satisfaction index (e-CSI)

Hsu (2008)

1. Information availability and content

2. Ease of use or usability

3. Privacy/security

4. Graphic style fulfilment

A survey of 89 customers in Sweden categorized into different industries, namely automotive, other manufacturing, service, motor vehicle and remaining industry, was utilized in the analysis of the European customer satisfaction index (ECSI) model. Hardware, software and perceived value were found to be the variables in the ECSI model to have the most effect on customer satisfaction (Dahlgaard & Ciavolino, 2007) .

Quality Perception Questionnaire (QPQ)

Coluccia, Ferretti, Lorini, & Calamai (2006)

To measure patients’ perceptions of quality during a recent hospital admission.

1. Doctors

2. Nurses

3. Auxiliary staff

4. Structures

Confirm the QPQ is a valid instrument-revealing the four factors as hypothesised by the authors. The factors explained about 72% of the total variance (Coluccia, Ferretti, Cioffi, Lorini, & Vidotto, 2005) . No differences were found in the QPQ scores with respect to age or sex. (Cioffi et al., 2012) .