It stimulates social equity, economic productivity, and environmental quality to meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Riviere et al.,2013 [43]

Liu et al., 2016 [44]

1) Malmö, Sweden


A city where human beings can exist in harmony with nature therefore greatly reducing ecological footprint.

A city that creates economic opportunities for their citizens in an inclusive, sustainable, and resource-efficient way, while also protecting and nurturing the local ecology and global public goods, such as the environment, for future generations.

Suzuki et al. 2010 [45]

World Bank, 2015 [46]

1) Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, China

2) City of Copenhagen, Denmark

3) Stockholm, Sweden

4) Yokohama, Japan

Smart city

The safe, secure, environmental and efficient urban center of the future with advanced information and communication technologies (ICT) to stimulate sustainable development in the economic growth and a high quality of life

UNESCAP, 2012 [47]

Sarker, 2017 [48]

1) Barcelona, Spain

2) Luxembourg

Carbon neutral city

Similar to “LCC” except defined more strictly as a city which has zero carbon emissions.

Adelaide City Council, 2015 [49]

1) Melbourne, Australia

Zero carbon


More specifically to a city which produces no GHG and is run exclusively on energy from renewable sources

Urban World, 2009 [50]

Hannallah & Faragallah, 2009 [50]

1) Masdar City, United Arab Emirates

2) Dongtan, China