Burn type

Infectious bacterium

Antibiotics administered

All burn types

a) Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains of staphylococci, streptococci and meningococcus

b) Some bacterial enzymes that inactivate natural penicillin

c) Wide range of bacteria [15] .

Types of Penicillins

a) Natural penicillin (Penicillin G class)

b) Penicillinase resistant penicillins (methicillin and oxacillin)

c) Aminopecillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin)

Gram positive bacteria.

Gram positives and extend to some Gram negatives.

Most Gram negative bacteria with some members showing less activity to Gram positives.

Much Gram positives as first generation. They show greater resistance to beta-lactamases than the third generation. They show much effectiveness against meningitis.


First generation cephalosporins Examples are cephradine, cephalexin, cefazolin and cefalothin;

Second generation cephalosporins: Examples are cefuroxime, cefonicid, ceforanide and cefamandole;

Third generation cephalosporins Examples are cefixime, cefetamet, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone;

Fourth generation cephalosporins: Examples are cefozopran, cefclidine, cefepime and cefpirome [15] .

All burn types

Bacteriostatic, preventing the synthesis of protein by binding with bacterial ribosomes.

Macrolides: Examples are azithromycin, eythromycin, roxithromycin and dirithromycin [15] .

All burn types

Gram negative bacteria

Aminoglycosides: Examples are gentamicin, amikacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin and neomycin [15] .

All burn types

These are bactericidal; they work by preventing bacteria DNA synthesis hence preventing their multiplication.

Fluoroquinolones: Examples are ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and clinafloxacin, etc [15] .

All burn types

Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria They are bacteriostatic and inhibit protein synthesis.

Tetracyclines: Examples are doxycycline, tetracycline, minocycline and oxytetracycline [15] .