From Sept 2008, Kenyan Meteorologists and NGANYI Local community (Indigenous knowledge forecasters) met together with the help of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) to produce a consensus forecast for the local Area. The Agreement reached on coupling IK and Modern forecasting methods.

( Ogallo, 2015 )


Tanzania Local farmers have favored Indigenous Knowledge based on their environment, it has been recognized that with Tanzania Meteorological Authority (TMA), farmers would benefit most from seasonal forecasts that are reliable and timely. Therefore, several stakeholders in LUSHOTO District of Northern Tanzania attempted to systematically integrate Indigenous system and Tanzania Meteorological Authority (TMA) Forecasts. After combining, weather prediction results were found to be reliable.

( Mahoo et al., 2013 )


Ugandan farmers use IK to predict the occurrence of rainfall by monitoring the behavior of biological and physical features. The farmers claimed Ugandan Meteorological Service (UMS) forecasts timing is not reliable, Therefore The research was undertaken to develop a statistical model that combined the Indigenous knowledge system and UMS forecasts.

( Waiswa, 2007 )



The research findings revealed that Local residents in most cases do not understand the meteorological forecasts; This implies the need to utilize the indigenous weather forecasting systems to augment the conventional weather forecasts from the meteorological department. So, the immense benefits can be realized if the IKS and meteorological department (weather prediction data) are combined.

( Makwara, 2013 )



Local people emphasis on the lack of documentation which bring some inaccuracies of relying on indigenous forms of forecasting. Some of farmers reported that the modern approaches work with measurement errors and statistical computations.

( Plotz et al., 2017 )