・ Actual or impending fistula

・ Unresectable malignant esophageal obstruction

・ Tumor recurrence after surgery or chemoradiotherapy

・ Malignant gastroesophageal anastomotic leaks

・ Contraindication to chemoradiotherapy

・ Extrinsic esophageal compression by primary or secondary mediastinal tumors


・ Potential for significant airway compression

・ Uncorrectable coagulopathy

・ Tumor or stricture within 2 cm of proximal esophageal sphincter

・ Recent high-dose chemoradiotherapy (within 3 - 6 weeks)

・ Curable disease by multimodality treatment (relative)

・ Terminal ill patient with limited life expectancy