Equations name




ln ( Q e Q t ) = ln Q e K 1 t

Qe et Qt respectively are quantities adsorbed at euilibrium and at the time t (mg/g),

t: contact time (min); K1 et K2 are respectively rate contant of first and second order (min−1).


t Q t = 1 K 2 Q e 2 + t Q e


1 Q e = 1 Q m K L C e + 1 Q m

Ce and Qe are the concentration and amount at equilibrium; KL: direct measure of the intensity of the adsorption process; Qm: maximum adsorption capacity.


ln Q e = 1 n ln C e + ln K F

KF: adsorption capacity; n: intensity of adsorption; 1/n = 0 irreversible; 1/n > 1 unfavorable 0 < 1/n < 1 favorable.