Indigenous institutions

Modern institutions

Mixed institutions

Not legally registered and recognized by the government hence operate on their own.

Known and used by all people.

Made up of both government and traditional leaders.

Membership based on beliefs and specific traditional knowledge (e.g. ritual performance). Few people subscribe to these institutions because not everybody has enough knowledge of traditions and beliefs associated with them.

Passed through democratic procedures―discussed and agreed upon by all members of the village. Also its leaders are elected based on their acceptance by the villagers.

Both government laws and traditions apply.

Leadership based on family lineage and inheritance, loyalty and command of respect.

Overseen by the village government.

Some depend on voluntary membership (e.g. social groups and resource user groups).

Command of respect based on society’s knowledge of customs and traditions.

Have modern leadership structure― Chairperson, secretary, treasurer and members of council.

Dependence on informal transfers of knowledge.

Recognized and report to the ward and district council.

No cash payments―traditional leaders are paid through respect from members of the community.

Supported by the government and other stakeholders (through salaries/ cash incentives, trainings).

Through the command of respect, the word of traditional leaders works as a law.

Has legal powers to litigate hence respected.