Statements/issues relevant to indigenous knowledge

National Environmental Policy of 1997

Reiterates the need for the integration of policies, plans and programmes of interacting sectors and interest groups to balance long-term and short-term needs in environment and development, including the need to improve inter-sectoral coordination.

Agriculture and Livestock Policy 2013

Section 3.1 Research and Development (p. 11) The policy recognized the importance of indigenous/traditional knowledge in relation to agricultural research and it states that: Indigenous knowledge shall be integrated into scientific research; Section 3.5 (Agricultural Extension Services, page 14) states that “The transformation of agricultural extension services is important in order to impart the right tools, knowledge and skills as well as ensuring farmers adhere to good agricultural practices”, which implicitly addresses good indigenous practices. Section 3.26 Gender states that: 1) The Government shall facilitate equal access to land to both men and women; 2) Participation of men and women in decision making processes to improve their access to productive resources shall be enhanced; and 3) Awareness creation and sensitization of communities on negative cultural attitudes and practices shall be promoted in collaboration with the ministry responsible for gender.

The National Forest Policy of 1998

The National Forest Policy formulated in 1998 makes extensive reference to biological diversity issues. It mainly deals with flora and it has an express provision on local, indigenous and traditional knowledge in relation to sustainable forest management. The Policy states in Section 2.4 (p. 13) that: “That there have been inadequate consultations to encourage grassroots participation in forestry planning and the potential of indigenous knowledge has not been fully utilized. This is partly due to limited resources for participatory consultations.” Such participatory consultations may in this case integrate local/indigenous institutions relevant to sustainable land management.

National Beekeeping Policy of 1998

The National Beekeeping Policy was issued at the same time with the National Forest Policy in 1998. However, the National Beekeeping Policy has no provisions recognizing the potential of indigenous knowledge in beekeeping management and the use of honey and its products, such as the use of honey in traditional medicine, knowledge that needs to be shared and protected [54] .

Forest Regulations of 2004

The provisional Rule 52(23) stated issues relevant to indigenous knowledge on community intellectual property right, that: “The community intellectual property rights of the local communities, including traditional professional groups, particularly traditional practitioners, shall at all times remain inalienable, and shall be further protected under the mechanism established by the relevant law relating to intellectual property rights”.

The National Wildlife Policy of 1998

The Wildlife Policy of Tanzania that was adopted in March 1998 emphasizes among other things the need for ensuring the participation of the people through community based natural resource management arrangements. Section 3.3.8 recognizing the intrinsic value of rural people, states that “enhancing the use of indigenous knowledge in the conservation and management of natural resources”. page 18 (viii) Section 3.2.1 on wildlife protection “to transfer management of WMA to local community thus taking care of corridors, migratory routes and buffer zones and ensure that local community obtain substantial tangible benefits from wildlife conservation. Has a link with Article 8J on Convention on Biodiversity conservation. Under the part dealing with recognition of intrinsic value of wildlife to the rural people the policy states under Section (viii) the need for: “enhancing the use of indigenous knowledge in the conservation and management of natural resources”.

Cultural Policy of 1997

Section 3.5.1 States that: Traditional knowledge, skills and technology which are environmentally friendly shall be identified and their use encouraged. (pp. 9-10)

National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (MKUKUTA), 2005, Cluster 1; Growth and Reduction of Income Poverty

Cluster strategy Section 2.4.5 (for operational target stated increased Agricultural growth from 5% in 2003 to 10% in 2010) (p. 6) states that: “Increase training and awareness creation on safe utilization and storage of agro-chemicals (including agriculture and livestock inputs, e.g. cattle dips), and the use of integrated pest control, eco-agricultural techniques, and use of traditional knowledge.” (p. 6)

Goal 4: cluster strategy item 4.7.1 states that: “Develop programmes for increasing local control and earnings in wildlife management areas, and establish locally managed natural resources funds, taping on local traditional knowledge.” (p. 11)

Goal 6. cluster strategy item 6.2.1 states that: “Develop and promote utilization of indigenous energy resources and diversification of energy sources.” (p. 13)

National Fisheries Sector Policy and Strategy Framework of 1997

The National Fisheries Sector Policy and Strategy Statement recognize local/traditional knowledge in the part dealing with improved knowledge of the fisheries resources base. Section 3.3.2 (p. 9) of the policy shows that the fisheries sector is constrained with scanty information on traditional/local knowledge of fisheries resources (p. 3). Therefore the policy develops an objective (Section 3.3.2) to enhance knowledge of the fisheries resource base. One of the strategies to achieve this is to “Facilitate and promote acquisition and documentation of traditional fisheries knowledge.” (p. 9).