Type of study



Desai, S., Chandler, N. (2009)


Review of article

Calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers do not fulfil all the criteria of ideal root canal sealer. Comparative studies reveal their mild cytotoxicity, but their antibacterial effects are variable.


Mustafa, M., Saujanya, K.P., Jain, D., Sajjanshetty, S., Arun, A., Uppin, L., Kadri, M. (2012)


Review of article

Calcium hydroxide is used widely in the field of endodontics. It is used and

supplied in various forms. Its alkalinity changes the acidic pH of periapical

tissues of a weeping canal to a more basic environment in


Fuks, A.B. (2008)


Review of article

Mineral trioxide aggregate and ferric sulfate can be used appropriately as

alternatives to formocresol for pulpotomies in primary teeth with exposed pulps. A high-speed handpiece or laser might result in an exposure of a “normal” pulp that would otherwise not be exposed.


Mohammadi, Z., Dummer, P.M.H. (2011)


Review of article

The bacterial activity of calcium hydroxide is questionable. Its removal is more effective when using ultrasonic methods than other methods. The biocompatibility of calcium hydroxide-based sealers is controversial and their antibacterial activity is variable, and their cytotoxicity is milder than for other groups of sealers. calcium hydroxide is the material of choice for pulp capping and pulpotomy, managing perforations, horizontal root fracture and root

resorption and apexification. However, it is replaced by MTA when used as apical barrier.


Agrawal, V. (2011)


Review of article

Calcium hydroxide has high alkalinity property. it has a mild irritation on the pulp. Its dissociation into hydroxyl ions and calcium is necessary for its

antimicrobial activity. It is supplied in several forms. It is available in powder form, as a liquid containing calcium hydroxide suspended in a solvent, as a

single paste, as two-paste: catalyst and base system and a calcium as a paste that contains a polymer resin.


Gomes, B.P.,

Pinheiro, E.T.,

Jacinto, R.C., Zaia, A.A., Ferraz, C.C.R.,

Souza-Filho, F.J. (2008)


Laboratory study

By using a polymerase chain reaction analysis, E. faecalis was the most

frequently identified test species in teeth with in canals of root-filled teeth

associated with periapical lesions.


Hancock, H.,

Sigurdsson, A., Trope, M., Moiseiwitsch, J. (2001)


Laboratory study

The microbial flora present in teeth after the failure of root canal treatment in a North American population was composed of E. faecalis (in 30% of the teeth with a positive culture).


Leonardo, M., Silva, R., Assed, S., Nelson-Filho, P. (2004)


Review of article

All teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographically visible chronic periapical lesion have bacterial endotoxin (LPS), which is a component of Gram-negative cell wall. It plays the main role in the genesis and persisting of periapical lesions because of inflammation induction as well as bone resorption. In vitro and in vivo, Calcium hydroxide inactivates bacterial endotoxin.


Garcez, S., Nuñez, S., Hamblin, M., Ribeiro, M. (2007)


An in vivo study

Adding Photodynamic therapy to endodontic treatment enhances the reduction of bacterial load and may be a suitable approach for the treatment of oral



Bonsor, S.J., Nichol, R., Reid, T.M.S., Pearson, G.J. (2006)


An in vivo study

(A randomised trial)

After using conventional irrigants in root canal treatment, the “Photodynamic Therapy” system offers a means of destroying the remaining bacteria.