Menopausal women in Africa. These were all women who were experiencing amenorrhoea for 12 consecutive months and above without biological or physiological cause.

Pre-menopause: Refers to the stage that leads up to peri-menopause. This stage affects most women in their late thirties and early forties.

Peri-menopause: Peri-menopause is the stage that occurs before menopause. During this stage, the menstrual period becomes irregular, which signifies the end of fertility in woman’s life, coupled by some troublesome symptoms.

Post-menopause: Refers to the time after a woman’s menstrual periods have ceased for 12 consecutive months. During postmenopausal stage, many troublesome symptoms a woman may have experienced during peri- menopause gradually decrease.


Use of information sources to understand and manage signs and symptoms. [Information refers to knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstances]


1) Hot flashes

2) Sexual function

3) All other menopause related signs and symptoms


1) Include publications since 2000 published in the African region

2) Exclude papers that discuss a lack of knowledge/information in general but with no description of information sources used.