Authors and year

Phenomena studied:

core elements of PS* studied

Context: where the care is delivered

Context: core theoretical elements of PCC*

Policy and practice implications

Quality assessment


Martijn et al. 2013 [33]

Safety culture

Type of incidents

Primary care midwifery practices

Midwifery-led care

Adherence to practice guidelines for patient risk assessment, better implementation of interventions with regard to risk factors and better availability of midwives during birthing


Sexton et al. 2006 [34]

Safety culture

Teamwork climate

Hospital care, labor and delivery units

Theory of safety culture.

Culture understood as artifacts, values and assumptions that make an organization distinct

To explore links to clinical and operational outcomes


Wagner et al. 2011 [35]

Adverse events

Perinatal safety

Hospital care, obstetrics ward

A multicomponent model: evidence-based protocols, team training, fetal monitoring, simulation program, educational program

Multicomponent safety initiatives in the healthcare system are necessary to improve PS


Hoang & Quynh 2012 [36]

Access to safety care

Hospital (conventional) care, midwifery-led care and planned homebirth

Three different models of intrapartum care

Women’s preferences should be taken into account when planning for type of delivery.


Iida et al. 2011


Safety, sense of control during labor and birth

Communication and satisfaction with care

Three different types of health facility; birth centres, clinics and hospitals

Women-centred care

Healthcare providers should consider the positive correlation between women-centred care and women’s perceptions of satisfaction, in addition to continuity of care and respectful communication


Lyndon et al. 2015 [38]

Safety culture

Intrapartum care

Perinatal care

Patient-centred communication

Approaches for improving communication


Larkin et al. 2012 [39]

Women’s physical safety

Risk management

Hospital units

Rural and city hospital

Conventional care

Quality of maternity services must encompass recognition of psychological and emotional well-being alongside physical safety


Raab et al. 2013 [40]

Safety culture

Perinatal care

Three academic facilities

Collaborative model

Changing culture requires administrative support and role modeling, staff involvement and sustainment of the desire to change

Sharing experiences debriefing


Collins 2008 [41]

Safety culture


Medical errors


Perinatal hospital units

Multidisciplinary team approach Uniform patient care strategies

Patient-relevant information

Collaborative approach


Team training, rapid response teams

Interdisciplinary electronic fetal monitoring course

Crew resource management approach

Uniformity of practice

Discussion of system failures