Iida et al. 2011 [37] Japan

Cross-sectional survey (retrospective)

A package of questionnaires

N = 591

Self-completed retrospective questionnaire; A researcher-developed women-centred care questionnaire, Labour Agentry Scale, Maternal Attachment Questionnaire and researcher-developed Care Satisfaction Scale

Women who delivered at birth centres rated women-centred care highly and were satisfied with the care they received compared to those who gave birth at clinics and hospitals. This was related to respectful communication during antenatal checkups and the ontinuity of care by midwives

Lyndon et al. 2015 [38]

San Francisco USA

Theoretical approach

based on empirical collaborative research

Expert professionals from four organizations that care for women during labour and birth

Expert opinion

No information about the instruments used in previous studies in the group’s collaborative research on safety issues in labour and delivery teams

Patient safety requires mutual accountability; individuals, teams, healthcare facilities, and professional associations have a shared responsibility for creating and sustaining environments of mutual respect and engaging in highly reliable perinatal care

Larkin et al. 2012 [39]


Qualitative descriptive study

Interviews, five focus-groups, n = 25

A qualitative analysis process was developed by focusing on expectations, opinions, experiences and emotions

Three themes were identified; “getting started”, “getting there” and “consequences”. Control was an important element in childbirth experiences. Women felt alone and unsupported

Raab et al. 2013 [40]


Theoretical approach based on previous empirical studies

Cross-sectional survey

Questionnaire n = 210

Intervention: team training, simulation, safety walk rounds. Implementation of collaborative processes


Safety Attitudes Questionnaire

Increased collaboration can improve patient outcomes and provider satisfaction.

An organization’s leadership and culture will affect the outcome of collaborative efforts.

Collaboration is a process that optimizes perinatal patient safety.

Chain of communication

Collins 2008

USA [41]

Theoretical approach

Review of claims involved in malpractice cases

reported to IOM3)

Electronic foetal monitoring education

Multidisciplinary teamwork increases communication and can reduce the number of adverse events

Sarrechiaet al. 2012 [42]


A descriptive study using qualitative methods

Examination of the content of care pathway of documenting care, content analysis. The content was compared with 40 evidence-based of Map of Medicine files

Evidence-based key interventions

An important variation in the use of evidence-based key interventions within the obstetric care pathway applied to the baby and mother

Hamman et al. 2009 [43] USA

Mixed-methods Case study design

Simulation-based team training interviews

Identifying latent threats to patient safety

Improving communication, access to blood products and technical competences

White et al. 2005 [44]


Retrospective analysis

90 consecutive obstetrics and gynecology-related internal review of files

Identifying action, events, and environmental circumstances that appeared to contribute to the event.

Fifty percent of cases were associated with in-patient obstetrics. Factors that may have contributed to adverse events were identified in 78% of cases, while 31% were associated with apparent communication problems