Gspsaurus pakistani

Maojandino alami

Saraikimasoom vitakri



Ikqaumishan smqureshi

Informal Description


[60] [61]


[59] [60]


Formal Description





In present research


Two associated cranial fragments including a partial dentary ramus, quadrate, and quadratojugal (GSP/MSM-79-19) and a partial vomer, palatine, and pterygoid (GSP/MSM-80-19); braincase/anterior caudal GSP/MSM-62-19;cervical vertebrae GSP/MSM-107-19, GSP/MSM-108-19, GSP/MSM-109-19, GSP/MSM-437-19, GSP/MSM-220-19, GSP/MSM-502-19; dorsal vertebrae GSP/MSM-110-19, GSP/MSM-111-19, GSP/MSM-112-19, GSP/MSM-617-19; caudal vertebrae GSP/MSM-113-19, GSP/MSM-114-19, GSP/MSM-115-19, GSP/MSM-116-19, GSP/MSM-117-19, GSP/MSM-218-19, GSP/MSM-219-19, GSP/MSM-221-19, GSP/MSM-696-19, GSP/MSM-777-19; vertebral fragment GSP/MSM-146-19; left and right partial distal scapula GSP/MSM-1100-19, GSP/MSM-217-19; proximal radius GSP/MSM-215-19; partial

*Same as Gspsaurus pakistani except the cranial specimen (GSP/MSM-79-19 and GSP/MSM-80-19).

Snout GSP/MSM-142-4, consisting of articulated left and right premaxillae, left and right maxillae, dorsal and ventral palatal process, left and right dentary, and complete teeth row.

Jaw ramus with 6 teeth GSP/MSM-138-4n; cranial materials and teeth fragments in matrix GSP/MSM-315-4n and GSP/MSM-314-4n; cervical vertebrae GSP/MSM-381-4n to GSP/MSM-383-4n; cervical/dorsal vertebra GSP/MSM-212-4n;

caudal vertebrae GSP/MSM-347-4n, GSP/MSM-348-4n;caudal chevron GSP/MSM-313-4n;

A partial proximal and mid humerus GSP-UM/Sangiali-1125.

ilium GSP/MSM-216-19; proximal left femur GSP/MSM-213-19; distal left femur GSP/MSM-118-19; proximal left tibia GSP/MSM-119-19; distal left tibia GSP/MSM-569-19; distal right tibia GSP/MSM-710-19

humerus fragments GSP/MSM-380-4n,GSP/MSM-377-4n, GSP/MSM-379-4n, GSP/MSM-438-4n; proximal radius GSP/MSM-344-4n; proximal pubis GSP/MSM-1096-4n; left femur GSP/MSM-190-4n; right distal femur GSP/MSM-192-4n; right femur fragments GSP/MSM-378-4n, GSP/MSM-270-4n; left and right distal tibiae GSP/MSM-346-4n, GSP/MSM-345-4n

Holotypic elements






Type locality

Alam (central Alam) (latitude 29˚41'0.7"N; longitude 69˚23'58"E; Figure 4 of [51] )

*central Alam

South Kinwa* (latitude 29˚40'57"N; longitude 69˚23'09"E; Figure 4 of [51] )

North Kinwa (latitude 29˚41'16"N; longitude 69˚23'31"E; Figure 4 of [51] )

Upper Sangiali or South Sangiali (Figure 4 of [51] ) latitude 29.69809N and longitude 69.39882E.

Referred specimens

A braincase (GSP/MSM-2-16 and GSP-UM 7000), a pair of coosified sacral vertebrae GSP/MSM-137-16, dorsal vertebrae GSP/MSM-131-16 and GSP/MSM-132-16, caudal vertebrae

GSP/MSM-34-16 and GSP/MSM-35-16, distal caudal vertebra GSP/MSM-153-16, a pair of left and right distal scapulae GSP/MSM-250-16 and GSP/MSM-176-16, a pair of left and right proximal ulna

GSP/MSM-175-16 and GSP/MSM-240-16, distal ulna GSP/MSM-74-16, distal radius GSP/MSM-160-16, acetabulum in 2 pieces GSP/MSM-147-16 and GSP/MSM-148-16, proximal right tibia biconvex lense shaped GSP/MSM-73-16, left and right proximal fibulae GSP/MSM-76-16 and GSP/MSM-77-16, convex part of sternal

*Same as Gspsaurus pakistani


caudal vertebrae GSP/MSM-523-7 and

GSP/MSM-524-7, scapula GSP/MSM-746-7 and osteoderm GSP/MSM-84-7

Proximal humerus GSP/MSM-237-10 from Rahi Wali (Figure 1 of [64] . Some vertebrae and limb bones from upper Sangiali locality (Figure 4 of [51] of Pakistan observed in the field and not collected due to avoid repetitions.

Referred right

GSP/MSM-1014-16, sternal part GSP/MSM-604-16, part of ilia GSP/MSM-557-16, part of ilia or spine with glenoid or wound mark GSP/MSM-150-16, vertebral process/distal rib/distal spine/metatarsal/metacarpal GSP/MSM-391-16, distal cervical ribs GSP/MSM-328-16, GSP/MSM-329-16, distal cervical rib GSP/MSM-767-16, mosaic type osteoderm GSP/MSM-83-16, mosaic type osteoderm GSP/MSM-1035-16, and osteoderm or platy oval ungual or sacral vertebrae GSP/MSM-776-16 from Top Kinwa.

Vertebral arch GSP/MSM-82-4, associated caudal vertebrae GSP/MSM-36-4, GSP/MSM-37-4, GSP/MSM-38-4, GSP/MSM-39-4, and GSP/MSM-39(a)-4, mid scapular blade with ridge GSP/MSM-838-4, right mid and distal scapula GSP/MSM-198-4, proximal and mid femur GSP/MSM-208-4 and osteoderm ellipsoidal plate GSP/MSM-85-4 from south Kinwa; Proximal tibia GSP/MSM-181-2 with associated proximal shaft GSP/MSM-850-2 from east Bor, Pakistan [62] [64] .

A caudal vertebra K20/317 and a humerus from Bara Simla India and right and left humeri from Chhota Simla limb skeleton from India [62] [64] .

and left humeri (78cm length) GSI type no 20010 (Figures 1a, b, of Plate 1 of [78] ) and GSI 20011 [78] reported from Rahioli locality, Gujarat state, India are being referred.

Referred Elements

41 elements from Pakistan; 8 elements from India

*Same as Gspsaurus




Referred localities

Top Kinwa 16, east Bor 2 and South Kinwa 4 (Figure 4 of [51] ) from Pakistan. Chhota Simla and Bara Simla localities of Jabalpur, central India and Rahioli locality of Gujarat state of western India.

*Same as Gspsaurus


South Zubra; Figure 1 of [64] .

Rahi Wali (Rahiwali) (Figure 1 of [64) Pakistan. Rahioli, India.

Total holotypic and referral elements






Total Individuals






Horizon/ Formation

Vitakri Formation; Lameta Formation

Vitakri Formation; Lameta Formation

Vitakri Formation

Vitakri Formation

Vitakri Formation.

Lameta Formation


Latest Maastrichtian

Latest Maastrichtian

Latest Maastrichtian

Latest Maastrichtian

Latest Maastrichtian

Distribution Territory; (Basin) wise

Barkhan District, Balochistan Province; (Sulaiman Range; Sulaiman Basin), Pakistan. Chhota Simla and Bara Simla localities of Jabalpur, central India and Rahioli locality of Gujarat state of western India.

Barkhan Distt, Balochistan, Sulaiman Basin, Pakistan. Chhota Simla, Bara Simla and Rahioli (India)

Barkhan District, Balochistan Province; (Sulaiman Basin, Pakistan)

Barkhan District, Balochistan Province; (Sulaiman Range; Sulaiman Basin, Pakistan)

Barkhan District, Balochistan Province; (Sulaiman Range; Sulaiman Basin) (Pakistan). Rahioli, Gujarat (western India)