Aly, Grabowski, Pasurka, and Rangan (1990) [16]

Technical, Scale, and Allocative Efficiencies in U.S. Banking: An Empirical Investigation

Intermediation Approach

Outputs: real estate loans, commercial and industrial loans, consumer loans, all other loans, and demand deposits.

Inputs: Labor, capital, loanable funds.

Barr, Seiford, and Siems (1994) [17]

Forecasting Bank Failure: A Non-Parametric Frontier Estimation Approach

Inputs: Full-Time Equivalent Employees Salary Expenses Premises and Fixed Assets Other Noninterest Expenses, Total Interest Expense Purchased Funds. Outputs: Core Deposits Earning Assets, Total Interest Income.

Bauer, Berger, Ferrier, and Humphrey (1995) [18]

Consistency Conditions for Regulatory Analysis of Financial Institutions: A Comparison of Frontier Efficiency Methods

Outputs: demand deposits, real estate loans, commercial and industrial loans, and installment loans. Inputs: labor, physical capital, small denomination time and savings deposits, and purchased funds.

Elysiani Mehdian 1992

Productive efficiency performance of minority and nonminority-owned banks: A nonparametric approach

The output vector used here includes: 1) commercial and industrial loans, 2) real estate loans, 3) other loans, and 4) investment securities. Inputs include: 1) CDs and time and savings deposits, 2) demand deposits, 3) capital (book value of bank’s premises, machinery, and equipment), and 4) labor.

Elysiani Mehdian 1995

The comparative efficiency performance of small and large US commercial banks in the pre and post deregulation eras”

Outputs: investment, real estate loans, commercial and industrial loans, other loans. Inputs: Time and savings deposits, Demand deposits, Capital, Labor.

Elysiani et al. 1998

Economies of Scale and Scope in Small Depository Institutions: Evidence from U.S. Cooperative Banks

Outputs: Consumer loans, real estate loans, securities and other earning assets. Inputs: Labor, capital, borrowed funds.

Ferrier, Kerstens, and Vanden Eeckaut (1994) [19]

Radial and Nonradial Technical Efficiency Measures on a DEA Reference Technology: A Comparison Using US Banking Data

Production Approach.

Outputs: the numbers of demand and time deposit accounts, and the numbers of real estate, instalment and commercial loans

Inputs: considered: the total number of employees, occupancy and equipment costs and expenditures on material.

Ferrier and Lovell 1990

Measuring cost efficiency in banking:

Econometric and linear programming evidence*

Outputs: number of demand deposit accounts,

number of time deposit accounts, number of real estate loans, number of installment loans, number of commercial loans.

Inputs: total number of employees, occupancy costs and expenditure on furniture and equipment, expenditure on materials.

Barth, J.R., Lin, C., Ma, Y., Seade, J., Song, F.M.,

2013 [20]

Do bank regulation, supervision and monitoring enhance or impede bank efficiency? 72 countries.

Outputs: Total loans and other earning assets, operating income. Inputs: total deposits, total money market funds, personnel expenses, total fixed assets, loan loss provision.

Georgios Chortareas*, George Kapetanios, Alexia Ventouri K 2016 [21]

Credit market freedom and cost efficiency in US state banking

Outputs: Consumer loans, Business loans, Securities Inputs: Labor, Physical capital, Total deposits.