Variable | Definitions | Source | |

| L_PATENT_GRA | Log of granted patents in the province i in year (t + 3) | National Bureau of Statistics of China |

| L_PATENT_POP | Log of granted patents per million persons in the province i in year (t + 3) | National Bureau of Statistics of China |

${A}_{j,t}^{\varphi}$ | L_GDP_PC | Log of GDP per capita | National Bureau of Statistics of China |

${L}_{j,t}^{A\lambda}$ | L_PERSONAL | Log of amount of full-time equivalent of R & D personnel | China Statistical Yearbook on Science and Technology |

${X}_{j,t}^{INF}$ | OPENNESS | Openness level: trade volume/GDP | China Statistical Yearbook |

${X}_{j,t}^{INF}$ | ED_SHARE | Share of local government’s expenditures spent on education | National Bureau of Statistics of China |

${X}_{j,t}^{INF}$ | INTER | Intermediary and law system | National Economic Research Institute |

${X}_{j,t}^{INF}$ | IP | Strength of protection for intellectual property | National Economic Research Institute |

${Y}_{j,t}^{CLUS}$ | TERTIARY | Share of tertiary sector in GDP | National Bureau of Statistics of China |

${Z}_{j,t}^{LINK}$ | UNI_RD | Percentage of R & D expenditures from universities | China Statistical Yearbook on Science and Technology |

${Z}_{j,t}^{LINK}$ | BANK | Contributions of bank to scientific and technical activities | China Statistical Yearbook on Science and Technology |