US Fish & Wildlife Service

Department of the Interior

Protect all fish and wildlife, including endangered, threatened, and species of special concern. Interested in sufficient stakeholder participation, and in protecting red knots, as well as other shorebirds. Currently developing management plans and goals for knot protection. They also provide data and opinions to agencies who issue the permits for aquaculture

Sea Grant

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Supports research on aquaculture and species/ecosystem health

Endangered and Nongame Program

New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (Division of Fish and Wildlife)

Protect all wildlife in New Jersey, including endangered, threatened and species of special concern. Manages declining populations, and provides data to aid in management decisions. Interested in the horseshoe crab-shorebird interactions from a community perspective. Provides information to the USFWS about protection of knots relative to aquaculture


U.S. Army Corp of Engineers

New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (Division of Fish and Wildlife)

Issues permits for building racks for rack and bag aquaculture in the intertidal

New Jersey Audubon

New Jersey Audubon

Initially protection of shorebird habitat (including for the red knot), Education efforts for red knots. Lobbying for appropriate laws and regulations of aquaculture, and protection of intertidal. Research on shorebirds in intertidal habitats

Other Independent Conservation Groups: New Jersey Conserva tion Foundation, Littoral Society, Defenders of Wildlife,

Conserve Wildlife Foundation of NJ,

CU-Maurice River

Independently funded

Main interest is in preserving and protecting populations of shorebirds (focused on red knot as a keystone species), and in protection of shorebird foraging habitat. Conducts research, and aids in research efforts, as well as lobbying for protective laws and regulations to protect the intertidal. Provides volunteers for relevant research activities