Name of Species

Role of clonal integration due to defoliation



Bromus ircutensis and Psammochloa villosa

Connected ramet significantly improved the performance P. villosa but no effect on Bromus

Moderate clipping did not reduce the biomass of both species, negative effects of heavy clipping were greatly mitigated in connected ramets


Alternanthera philoxeroides

Clonal integration increased maximum quantum yield Fv/Fm of daughter ramet under connected treatment

Due to clonal integration young ramet was supported by mother ramet regardless of defoliation intensity


Carex divisa Hude, Eleocharis palustris L., Juncus articulatus L., Juncus gerardii Lois and Elytrigia repens L.

The two species under experimental clipping (E. palustris and J. gerardii) shown best tolerance under grazing.

Reported to be found abundant in intensively grazed situations being grazed by macro-herbivores. E. palustris was shown to maintain the length of connections when defoliated and this fit well with its cover increase with grazing intensity




C. cylindracea cover increased by ~450% in 75% removal plots, ~200% in

50% removals and ~70% in 25% removals

in C. cylindracea by increase in clipping intensity the biomass also increased greatly


fern Diplopterygium glaucum

Survival rate was 100% in connected ramets and 27% survival in severed ramets

Clonal integration played vital role in connected ramets for their survival