Input variables

Process variables

Output variables


Exogenous or environmental variables

Endogenous variables, e.g., personality




Subjective states

Voluntary behaviours


Themes and sub-themes identified from raw data

Strength of psychological functioning under stress

Accommodation of limitations or barriers to psychological functions


Stressors (external stress and internal strain)

Performing and retaining the capacity to understand, reason and make accurate and timely judgements (cognitive faculty)

Tolerance of uncertainty

Preservation of wellbeing and intended behaviour under stress (surviving)

Performing and retaining the capacity for purposeful direction of effort towards needs and goals (conative faculty)

Awareness and promotion of others’ needs before one’s own

Tolerance of unfulfilled needs

Tolerance of uncontrollable internal, external and future environments

Emotional attachment to external entities

Goal maintenance (striving)

Performing and maintaining favourable affect (affective faculty)

Tolerance of uncontrollable negative affect

Growth and achievement (thriving)