Length of hospital stay

adj P = 0.13

Total hospital costs

adj P = 0.4

Inpatient medical doctor coordination with PCP

adj P = 0.87

Pain controlled during hospitalization

adj P = 0.55

Patient understanding of reasons for hospitalization

adj P = 0.20

PJP vaccination during hospitalization

adj P = 0.99

Turner 2001 (20)

New York, USA

Cross-sectional analysis. Data collected for years 1996-1998

HIV women receiving federal medical care benefits (n = 595).

HIV-focused care (providers paid at enhanced rates to deliver HIV-related services or in an HIV-related specialty) vs. non-HIV-focused care



Participants excluded due to small sample size: Asian Americans, American Indians and those who lack data on racial/ethnic group or maternal country of birth. All data were adjusted for clustering effect, patients’ and care sites’ characteristics.

ART use

-Compared to patients with 0 visit to HIV-focused care, patients with 1 - 2 HIV-focused visits were statistically significant (adj P = 0.02) in receiving more acceptable ART combination and not significant (adj P = 0.61) in receiving cART.

-Patients without clinical AIDS benefit from a greater visit to HIV-focused care in being prescribed cART compared to those with AIDS (adj P = 0.02)

-Among women without AIDS, greater visits to HIV-focused care were more likely to be prescribed cART (adj OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.40) than those without HIV-focused care

Wilson 2005 (22)


Cross-sectional analysis. Data collected for years 1999-2001

Persons with HIV or AIDS in federally funded HIV care sites in 30 states (n = 6551).

ID-trained physicians vs. HIV-expert GM vs. non-HIV-expert GM vs. HIV-trained NP/PA

ID physician

HIV-expert GM

Non-HIV-expert GM


All data were adjusted for clustering effect, study sites, time of intervention and patients’ characteristics.

cART use, viral load control, influenza vaccine use, and outpatient visit rates

NP/PA performed better than non-HIV-expert GM (P < 0.05), but similar to ID-trained physicians and HIV-expert GM:

-HIV-trained NP/PA outperformed non-HIV-expert GM in virological success (adj P = 0.012) but not ID physicians (adj P = 0.31) and HIV-expert GM (adj P = 0.86)

-No difference in cART use between ID physician (adj P = 0.29) and HIV-expert GM (adj P = 0.58) compared to NP/PA. Low cART use in non-HIV-expert GM (adj P = 0.041) compared to NP/PA

-NP/PA had higher rate of influenza vaccination than non-HIV-expert GM (adj P = 0.02)

-Compared to NP/PA, no difference in outpatient visits in ID physicians (adj P = 0.125) and HIV-expert GM (adj P = 0.59) compared to NP/PA but low outpatient visits in non-HIV-expert GM (adj P < 0.001)