Mechanisms of Action

Statins (Atorvastatin or Simvastatin)

Decrease both the mRNA and the protein levels of NMDAR1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 mRNA, COX-2 and protein expression levels in 6-OHDA-stimulated PC12 cells.


Decreases striatal caspase-3 and NFκB expression indicating potential anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects respectively.

Additionally, it reduces MPP (+)-induced motor deficits such as fine motor movements and gait.


It is known to act as an anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, antidepressant and anti-amnesic effects.

Mucuna pruriens (MP)

Reduces the expression of iNOS and GFAP in the SN.

MP down regulates NO production, neuroinflammation and microglial activation. It also increases the levels of dopamine, DOPAC and homovanillic acid compared to MPTP intoxicated mice.


It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, but no studies have yet described the effects of acetylcorynoline on PD.

significantly decreases the dopaminergic neuron degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in BZ555 strain; prevents α-synuclein aggregation; recovers lipid content in OW13 strain; restores food-sensing behavior, dopamine levels; and prolongs lifespan in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated N2 strain.


Diminishes intracellular ROS formation and down-regulation of p53, UPR and Nrf2-ARE pathways.


Attenuates dopaminergic neuron degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine; reduces α-synuclein accumulation; recovers lipid content, food-sensing behavior, and dopamine levels; and prolongs lifespan of 6-hydroxydopamine treatment.

Curcumin derivative

Reduces tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expressions by virtue of its antioxidant action.


Modulates cytokine production and inhibit NF-κB signaling.

α-lipoic acid (LA)

Inhibits intercellular ROS levels and the mitochondrial transmembrane permeability and reduce the production of free radicals to protectfrom the oxidative damage.